How would the gases produced by the jadarite ore processing be managed within the Jadar Project?
We plan to use modern technology for the prevention of gas emissions. We would use modern filtration systems to collect over 99% of processing gases and dust that occurs. To produce lithium, jadarite would be dissolved using sulphuric acid at 90°C, which is well below the boiling point of sulphuric acid (250ºC), as well as below the boiling point of water (100°C). Therefore, the gas that would be produced during this process would primarily contain carbon dioxide and water. After chemical reactions of ore processing, there would be no presence of sulphuric acid in any of the wastewater streams or residue generated during the process. All emissions that would be produced during the process would be below the limit prescribed by the laws of the Republic of Serbia and the European Union – even before entering the filtration system.
How would dust levels be controlled?
Since most of the operations are underground, the main sources of potential dust emissions would be raw material handling and storage, and traffic in and around the site. To minimise dust, we would have dust suppression measures in place. We would conduct progressive capping of the waste storage areas using native grasses to further help reduce dust. We've conducted laboratory wind-tunnel tests to simulate local wind and surface conditions at the Jadar Project’s processing residue storage facility.
Preliminary estimates show that dust emissions from each waste storage surface would be below the limits of air pollution set by EU regulations. These wind tunnel tests have also helped validate the effectiveness of dust suppression techniques.
We would gradually rehabilitate the dry waste and processing residue storage location by placing an overlay of native plants, which would further contribute to the reduction of dust emissions.
How do you plan to control greenhouse gas emissions?
Our ambition is to achieve net zero emissions of harmful gases in all our business activities by 2050. We are currently assessing the carbon footprint of the proposed operations, as well as how we can reduce greenhouse gas emissions – including the path to net zero emissions.
We would use high-efficiency electric motors, solar lighting and electric vehicles across the Jadar site. We are also analysing a wide range of options for switching from one form of energy to another (from natural gas to alternatives), and possibilities for reducing energy consumption. These initiatives can contribute to offsetting hard-to-abate emissions.
How would emissions be monitored and air quality data reported to the public?
We would set up tracking stations across the Jadar site to detect fine dust. We would monitor the dust levels in real time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The monitoring would be conducted by an independent body using a certified methodology.
We would publish the results on our website on a monthly, quarterly and annual basis in accordance with the relevant laws.
Would the fumes be visible?
The cooling towers would emit water vapour, which would normally not be visible. Nevertheless, on cold days, the temperature difference between hot water and cold atmosphere would create conditions in which water vapour would quickly condense and become visible and fog-like.
The most visible emissions would come from the mine's ventilation duct during the winter, when warm air from the underground reaches the surface's cold air and condenses into a haze.